There are hundreds of cooperatives, and the Ratsiraka government has been encouraging fokonolona , or village organizations, to stimulate planned agricultural undertakings. Chambers of commerce, originally established in 1902, are located in a dozen towns. The national branch is the Chamber of Commerce, Industry, Art and Agriculture of Antananarivo. There are also seven major employers' organizations.
There are numerous associations for sports. Tanora Tonga Saina is the government-sponsored youth movement. There are also scouting programs and a number of religiously and/or politically affiliated groups for youth. The Red Cross is active in the country.
Stevens, Rita. Madagascar. Philadelphia, Pa.: Chelsea House, 1999.