There has been oil exploration since the early 20th century, but no important deposits had been found as of 2003. An estimated 80 million tons are thought to be extractable from bituminous sand deposits near Mahajanga, but it is not economically feasible. Madagascar's only oil refinery was established at Toamasina in 1966.
Installed electrical capacity in 2001 amounted to 285,000 kW. Annual output of power in 2000 was 820 million kWh, 63.4% of which was hydroelectric and 36.6% of which was thermal. Consumption of electricity in 2000 was 762.6 million kWh. The first phase of the Andekaleta hydroelectric station, east of Antananarivo, came on line in 1982 with a capacity of 58 MW.