Transportation facilities remain undeveloped, a factor that has hampered economic development as a whole, especially the exploitation of mineral deposits in the interior. There is no rail line in Guinea-Bissau. In 2002, the country had an estimated 4,400 km (2,735 mi) of roads, of which 453 km (282 mi) were tarred. These, however, consisted mostly of military penetration roads unfit for regular passenger and commercial traffic.
Bissau is the main port; expansion and modernization projects costing at least $48 million were undertaken there in the early 1980s. Secondary ports and harbors include Buba, Cacheu, and Farim. Bissau is also the site of a modern international airport, while several aerodromes and landing strips serve the interior. In 2001 there were 28 airports, of which 3 had paved runways. Linhas Aéreas da Guiné-Bissau (LIA), the national airline, also has service to Dakar, Senegal. Transportes Aéreos Portuguéses (TAP), Air Guinée, Aeroflot, Air Senegal, Cape Verde Airlines, and Air Algérie provide international service. In 1997, it carried 21,000 passengers on domestic and international flights.