Ghana - Agriculture

Ghana Agriculture 1769
Photo by: Renate W.

Agriculture, especially cocoa, forms the basis of Ghana's economy, accounting for 36% of GDP in 2001. Cocoa exports in 2001 contributed 16% ($246.7 million) to total exports. About 23% of the total area, or 5,300,000 ha (13,096,000 acres), was cultivated in 1998. About 85% of all agricultural land holders in Ghana are small scale operators who primarily farm with hand tools.

Cocoa beans were first introduced to Ghana in 1878 by Tettah Quarshie. Thereafter, the cultivation of cocoa increased steadily until Ghana became the world's largest cocoa producer, supplying more than one-third of world production by the mid-1960s. By the early 1980s, production was less than half that of two decades before; market conditions were aggravated by a drop of nearly 75% in world cocoa prices between 1977 and 1982. In 1983/84, cocoa production totaled 158,000 tons, the lowest since independence; by 1999, production had rebounded to about 409,000 tons (second highest after Côte d'Ivoire). The Ghana Cocoa Marketing Board purchases and (at least in theory) exports the entire cocoa crop, as well as coffee and shea nuts. Cocoa smuggling was made punishable by death in 1982.

Ghana continues to be a net food importer. Ghana's Ministry of Food and Agriculture estimates that Ghanaian agriculture may be operating at just 20% of its potential. The grain harvest in 1999 included corn, 1,014,000 tons; paddy rice, 210,000 tons; sorghum, 302,000 tons; and millet, 160,000 tons. Other crops were cassava, 7,845,000 tons; plantains, 2,046,000 tons; cocoyams (taro), 1,707,000 tons; yams, 3,249,000 tons; tomatoes, 216,000 tons; peanuts, 212,000 tons; sugarcane, 147,000 tons; coconuts, 240,000 tons; chilies and peppers, 170,000 tons; oranges, 50,000 tons; palm kernels, 35,000 tons; and palm oil, 310,000 tons. Considerable potential exists for the development of agricultural exports including pineapples, tomatoes, soybeans, and cut flowers.

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User Contributions:

Nayeem kazia
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Mar 2, 2009 @ 2:14 pm
Dear Sir,

Please send me the price regulerly of Cocoa Liquor, Cocoa Powder etc with specification.
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Apr 28, 2009 @ 12:12 pm
Wow that is some good information thanks i will put on poject
Norman Illsley
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Jun 26, 2009 @ 12:12 pm
A human can develop 1/10 horsepower sustained. That will not plow much land! What is the level of mechanization of private agriculture? And especially, availability of maintenance and repair of machinery?
Thank you.
Isaac Kwesi Abuley
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Aug 23, 2009 @ 4:16 pm
I was privileged to visit the Ministry of Agriculture(Tamale) where realized that the extension agent to farmer ratio is 1:3000. The Municipality Director however added that there is a freeze on employment in the sector. My question goes like this, if the economy largely depends on Agriculture and the government has it at heart, then why this discouraging ratio for a country which wants to expand it's agricultural potentials.
Again,when the Ministry of Health were brought before the parliamentary accounts committee they said the working hard to reduce the ratio of a doctor to patient by producing 500 doctors per year who are assured of ready job with good working conditions. what then is this Ministry(Mo Fa) doing to encourage the young ones to follow Agriculture. path, which happens to be backbone of our economy and so improving agriculture.means improving the livelihood of the people, Thank you
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Feb 15, 2010 @ 4:04 am
I love the article and it is good for my project for Exportation plan between 2010-2012 at the Economic Department of University of Ghana
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Jul 11, 2010 @ 9:21 pm
I am interested in starting an agricultural project in the Volta Region of Ghana.
How do I get a license?
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Nov 23, 2010 @ 8:08 am
Can i know the type of vaccines, type of vaccination, number and type of livestock vaccinated and years of vaccination (from 2oo5-date)?
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Dec 9, 2010 @ 4:04 am
What a good article so informative.I do appreciate the historical analysis but what I find a bit missing is current statistical figures for update.Hope to find in subsequent articles.Thank you
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Jun 3, 2011 @ 6:18 pm
There exists a lot of information on traditional crops but none or little do we hear about the non- traditional ones. Knowing the prices at which these non- traditional crops are quoted, it will promote its cultivation among the youth.
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Jul 27, 2011 @ 8:08 am
Thanks for such information and i am keen in setting up a farm, please can you give me guidelines about how to proceed. Please i am waiting for your reply.

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