The US Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) reports that in 2001 Egypt's gross domestic product (GDP) was estimated at $258 billion. The per capita GDP was estimated at $3,700. The annual growth rate of GDP was estimated at 2.5%. The average inflation rate in 2001 was 2.3%. The CIA defines GDP as the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year and computed on the basis of purchasing power parity (PPP) rather than value as measured on the basis of the rate of exchange. It was estimated that agriculture accounted for 14% of GDP, industry 30%, and services 56%.
According to the United Nations, in 2000 remittances from citizens working abroad totaled $2.852 billion or about $42 per capita and accounted for approximately 3.1% of GDP. Worker remittances in 2001 totaled $2.973 billion. Foreign aid receipts amounted to about $19 per capita and accounted for approximately 1% of the gross national income (GNI).
The World Bank reports that in 2001 per capita household consumption (in constant 1995 US dollars) was $1,013. Household consumption includes expenditures of individuals, households, and nongovernmental organizations on goods and services, excluding purchases of dwellings. It was estimated that for the same period private consumption grew at an annual rate of 13%. Approximately 44% of household consumption was spent on food, 7% on fuel, 3% on health care, and 17% on education. The richest 10% of the population accounted for approximately 25.0% of household consumption and the poorest 10% approximately 4.4%. It was estimated that in 1996 about 23% of the population had incomes below the poverty line.