Nearly all Egyptians have access to health care. Between 1982 and 1987 (during the first five-year plan), the government established 14 public and central hospitals, 115 rural health units, and 39 rural hospitals. The total number of beds increased by 9,257 during this period (to a total in 1985 of 96,700). In 1987, 190 general and central hospitals were established (26,200 beds), as well as 2,082 rural health units, and 78 village hospitals. In 2000, 95% of the population had access to safe drinking water and 94% had adequate sanitation.
The Egyptian government formulated its second five-year plan from 1988 to 1992, with planned for the completion or replacement of 103 public/central hospitals and 25 health units in rural hospitals. There were also plans to establish 25 urban health centers (each serving around 150,000 people) and 100 rural health units (each serving about 5,000 people). As of 1999, there were an estimated 1.6 physicians and 2.1 hospital beds per 1,000 people.
Serious diseases in Egypt include schistosomiasis, malaria, hookworm, trachoma, tuberculosis, dysentery, beriberi, and typhus. Although malaria and polio cases were small in number, nearly 1,444 measles cases were reported in 1994. In 1999, Egypt vaccinated children up to one year old against tuberculosis; diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus (94%); polio; and measles (95%). Of children under age five, 4% were malnourished as of 2000.
The country's fertility rate was 3.3 in 1999. As of 2000, 56% of reproductive-age women practiced contraception. Abortion is legal only for medical reasons. The overall death rate was estimated at 7,6 per 1,000 inhabitants in 2002 and the infant mortality rate in 2000 was 42 per 1,000 live births. Life expectancy in 2000 was 67 years.
A full 80% of all Egyptian women undergo female genital mutilation. There are no specific laws against this practice.
Egypt planned to expand its health insurance, with the target of covering 75% of the population. As of 1999 total health care expenditure was estimated at 3.8% of GDP. There were 129 cases of AIDS in 1996.