Social services were introduced in Chad very slowly and have been largely disrupted by warfare. Legislation calls for family allowances, funded by contributions by employers at a fixed percentage (6%) of the employee's wage. Other mandated payments include prenatal allowances, a lump sum payable at the birth of each of the first three children to assist in purchasing clothing and, if the mother is employed, a recuperation allowance for 14 weeks. Old-age and disability pensions are provided to salaried workers only.
The position of women in Chad is a subordinate one. While property and inheritance laws do not discriminate against women, tradition and local custom favors men. Women generally receive less education then men, and do not have equal job opportunities. Rural women do most of the strenuous agricultural work in the fields, and girls are often married as young as 11 or 12. Female circumcision, also known as female genital mutilation, is widespread. Domestic violence and abuse are common, and women have limited recourse.
The government's human rights record remains poor. A pattern of arbitrary violence continues, including arbitrary arrest and detention, torture, beatings, and other abuse. Prison conditions are life-threatening. The government continues to hold political prisoners, and restricts freedom of speech and religion.