Housing remains an issue of major concern in Côte d'Ivoire, particularly in Abidjan, which has been the focus of continued migration from rural areas. Extensive slum clearance has been carried out in the former capital, but shantytowns still persist on the outskirts. Police officers, soldiers, customs officials, top-level bureaucrats, and foreign salaried government employees receive free housing. In rural areas, some villages have been entirely rebuilt or replanned. According to the latest available figures, the housing stock totaled nearly two million units, with about six people per dwelling. In 1990, only about 49% of the total population had access to improved sanitation systems; 65% had access to improved water systems.