There are no national parks and laws against hunting and poaching are not enforced. Wildlife survives only in those areas of the country not heavily cultivated, and rapid population growth is reducing the amount of uncultivated land. The cutting of forests for fuel is uncontrolled despite legislation requiring permits. Only 5.3% of Burundi's total land area is protected. Soil erosion due to deforestation, improper terracing, and overgrazing is also a serious problem. Burundi also has a problem with maintaining the purity of its water supply. It has only 3.6 cubic kilometers of renewable water resources, of which 64% is used for agricultural purposes. About 91% of the nation's urban population and 77% of rural dwellers have access to pure water.
As of 2000, five species of mammals in a total of 107 were considered threatened. An example is the mountain gorilla whose existence is endangered due to poaching and damage to its living environment from deforestation. Six species of birds in a total of 451 were similarly threatened. Of 2,500 plant species in Burundi, none are currently threatened.