Burkina Faso has a shortage of skilled scientists and technicians. Scientific and technical aid comes chiefly from France. In 1987– 97, expenditures for research and development totaled 0.2% of GNP; there were 17 scientists and 16 technicians per million people engaged in research and development. Burkina Faso has 4 national institutes conducting research in agriculture, medicine, and natural sciences; and two French institutes conducting research in medicine, hydrology, and geology; and an international institute (founded in 1960) to combat endemic and transmitted diseases and malnutrition and to train medical workers in eight member African states. The University of Ouagadougou (founded in 1969) has institutes of mathematics and physics, chemistry, natural science, technology, and health sciences. A 14-nation school of engineering and rural equipment (founded in 1968) is in Ouagadougou. In 1987–97, science and engineering students accounted for 37% of college and university enrollments.