Practically all domestic trade was in Portuguese hands before independence, when state people's stores and consumer cooperatives were established in the cities. Over half of Angolan consumer goods were still imported from Portugal in 1998. The Angolan domestic economy faced sporadic fighting during the late 1990s despite the 1994 peace accord, inhibiting domestic commerce. The rural population was displaced—first by the war for independence that started in 1961, and then by the civil war that started after independence was gained in 1975—and has not been able to fully return to agricultural production. Imports were strictly controlled due to a lack of foreign exchange, and barter was common. Though a privatization program has been in effect, there are very few groups or individuals in the private sector with the finances and/or administrative abilities to purchase and effectively run larger public corporations.