301 A.D. According to legend, San Marino was founded by the Christian stonecutter Marinus who sought refuge on Mount Titano from religious persecution.
|GDP per Capita (US$)|
|Note: Data are estimates.|
|SOURCE: Handbook of the Nations , 17th,18th, 19th and 20theditions for 1996, 1997, 1998 and 1999 data; CIA World Factbook 2001 [Online] for 2000 data.|
4TH TO 13TH CENTURIES. San Marino retains its independence despite the ambitions of the neighboring rulers and as new political entities develop and disappear throughout the land. The economy is based on agriculture and stonecutting.
1291. Roman Pope Nicholas IV officially recognizes San Marino's independence.
1503. Italian general Cesare Borgia briefly occupies the republic until his death several months later.
1739. Italian Roman Catholic Cardinal Alberoni uses military force to occupy San Marino, but civil disobedience against the invader and letters of protest to the Pope are answered by renewed papal recognition of San Marino's rights and restoration of independence.
1797. French leader Napoleon Bonaparte offers to expand the territory of San Marino as a gift and as a sign of friendship with the republic, but the Sammarinese authorities refuse.
1849. San Marino offers refuge to Italian revolutionary leader Giuseppe Garibaldi.
1862. San Marino signs a treaty of friendship (revised several times since) with Italy.
1943-45. During World War II, neutral San Marino hosts about 100,000 refugees from the embattled neighboring zones of Italy.
1945. A coalition of Communists and Socialists wins elections and rules for 12 years, creating the base of the welfare state and modern economic development.
1957. The Christian Democratic Party, aided by Communist dissidents, takes control of the government.
1978. A Communist coalition regains power and retains it for 14 years.
1992. San Marino becomes a member of the United Nations, while the Christian Democrats form a coalition government with the Socialists, a regime that continues to govern after the 1993 general elections.
1999. Control over the Italian monetary and banking system, used in San Marino, is transferred to the European Central Bank (ECB).