Estonia - Country history and economic development

1561. Estonia is subjugated by Sweden; reforms improve the economic situation of the peasants.

1721. Estonia is ceded to Russia's Peter the Great.

1816. Russian reforms abolish serfdom, and peasants obtain the right to buy land. Nationalism grows.

1905. In the wake of the first Russian revolution, nationalism is boosted by modern press and literature.

1917. The Russian tsar is toppled by the second Russian Revolution.

1918. On February 24 an independent Estonian democratic republic is proclaimed.

1920. The Tartu peace treaty between Soviet Russia and Estonia recognizes Estonia's sovereignty.

1921. The Estonian Republic is recognized by Western powers, becoming a League of Nations member.

1934. A coup establishes an authoritarian regime.

Household Consumption in PPP Terms
Country All Food Clothing and footwear Fuel and power a Health care b Education b Transport & Communications Other
Estonia 41 7 24 8 4 9 7
United States 13 9 9 4 6 8 51
Russia 28 11 16 7 15 8 16
Latvia 30 5 16 6 23 11 10
Data represent percentage of consumption in PPP terms.
a Excludes energy used for transport.
b Includes government and private expenditures.
SOURCE: World Bank. World Development Indicators 2000.

1939. Estonia is left in the Soviet sphere by a non-aggression pact between Germany and the USSR.

1940. The Soviets invade Estonia and on August 6 the country is incorporated into the USSR.

1941. Nazi Germany invades the USSR and occupies Estonia until it is driven out in 1944.

1945. Soviet rule is restored and the economy is reformed along Soviet lines.

1985. With the reforms of Soviet president Mikhail Gorbachev, Estonia moves towards independence.

1991. Communist rule collapses and the USSR recognizes the independence of Estonia in September.

1991. Estonia becomes a member of the United Nations and adopts reforms for democratization and privatization.

1994. Russia withdraws troops from Estonia.

1995. Estonia becomes an associated member of the European Union.

1998. Estonia starts negotiations for full membership in the European Union.

1999. Estonia joins the World Trade Organization.

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