1438-1530. Height of the Inca Empire, expansion north to Panama and south to Argentina.
1532. Francisco Pizarro lands in Peru and conquers the Incas.
1821. Independence from Spain is proclaimed.
1824. Independence is granted.
1879-83. War of the Pacific with Chile. Peru loses a large chunk of its southern territory, and its economy is destroyed.
1924. APRA party is founded.
1941. War with Ecuador.
1968. Left-wing military coup led by Gen. Juan Velasco. Agrarian reform begins; industries nationalized.
1975. Right-wing military coup; dismantling of statist model begins.
1980. Return to democracy. Fernando Belaúnde is elected president.
1980. Shining Path launches first attack.
1985. Alán García is elected president. Foreign debt cap is announced.
1988. The government attempts to nationalize the banks; economy collapses.
1990. Alberto Fujimori elected. Structural adjustment program announced. Inflation reaches 7,600 percent.
1992. Shining Path leadership arrested.
1993. Telephone company privatized for US$2 billion.
1995. Fujimori is re-elected.
2000. Fujimori re-elected in fraudulent May elections. He resigns in November.
2000. Valentin Paniagua takes over as interim president in November. Alejandro Toledo is elected Peru's new president.