The unemployment rate in Botswana is a debated figure, with the official estimate at 20 percent, and the unofficial rate at 40 percent. Most infrastructure developments, such as hospitals, roads, and schools, have been in urban areas and benefit urban residents. With the majority of the population (65 percent) living in urban centers, working conditions have improved. Wages in the mining sector are high, but are low in the agricultural sector. Women have poorer employment prospects, make less money, and are rarely promoted. Until 2000 education in Botswana was free, but in that year the government required students to pay fees, even for elementary schooling. In 1995 enrollment rates for males and females in primary and secondary education was between 81 and 89 percent, but this figure was expected to drop due to the new fees.