Banks, Arthur S., Alan Day, and Thomas Muller, eds. Political Handbook of the World. 1997.
Boston Globe, May 4, 1996.
Boudreaux, Richard. "Erdogan Win in Turkey May Boost U.S. Bid," Chicago Tribune Online Edition http://www.chicagotribune.com/la-fgerdogan10mar10,0,343404.story?coll=chi-news-hed (May 9, 2003).
British Broadcasting Corporation, http://news.bbc.co.uk (May 2000).
Embassy of the Republic of Turkey, Washington, D.C. http://www.turkishembassy.org (April 2002).
"Erdogan Designated to Form 59th Government," Turkish Press.com, http://www.turkishpress.com/turkishpress/news.asp?ID=9477 (May 9, 2003).
Ministry of Foreign Affairs, http://www.mfa.gov.tr (May 2000).
New York Times, April–May 2000.
Raghavan, Sudarsan. "U.S. Has Unlikely Ally in Turkish Leader," Knight Ridder Newspapers http://www.realcities.com/mld/krwashington/news/world/5341878.htm (May 9, 2003).
Sabah, June 1999.
Toros, Harmonie. "Turkey's Erdogan Forms New Government," Ohio.com http://www.ohio.com/mld/ohio/5393112.htm (May 9, 2003).
TurkC-L Turkish Press Review .
"Turkey's Charismatic Pro-Islamic Leader," BBC News http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/2270642.stm (May 9, 2003).
U.S. Department of State, http://www.state.gov (April 2002).
Profile researched and written by Jeneen Hobby, Ph.D. (5/03); sections contributed by Ayse Betül Çelik and Cengiz Kirli, Binghamton University (9/99 and 4/02).