The Republic of Iraq (al-Jumhuriyah al-Iraqiyah) is a landlocked country, except for its 58 km (36 mi) coastline at the Persian Gulf. Iraq is bounded by Iran, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Syria, and Turkey. Its total area, excluding the Iraqi-Saudi Arabia Neutral Zone, is 438,317 sq km (169,235 sq mi).
The population of Iraq was estimated to be 24 million in 2002. About 75–80% of the people are Arabs; 15–20% Kurds; and 5% Turkomans, Armenians, Persians, and other smaller ethnic groups. Almost 97% of the population is Muslim (60–65% Shiite, 32–37% Sunni), and the remainder consists of various Christian sects, the Yazidis and Sabeans communities. While Arabic and Kurdish are the official languages of Iraq, Kurdish is the official language in the Kurdish regions. The Iraqi unit of currency is the dinar . Per capita gross domestic product (GDP) was estimated at US $2,500 in 2001. Iraq's main natural resource and export is oil. The main imports are foodstuffs, machinery, capital equipment, motor vehicles, and consumer goods. Iraq's major trading partners, prior to the imposition of sanctions in August 1990, were the United States, Japan, Brazil, Germany, the United Kingdom, Turkey, and the USSR.
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