There are no restrictions on foreign investment except in real estate. Federal grants are offered for investments in depressed areas. The cantonal governments offer tax and non-tax incentives for new investments or extensions of existing investments on a case-by-case basis.
In 1997 total foreign direct investment (FDI) stock in Switzerland exceeded $56.58 billion (22% of GDP). US companies accounted for 23% of that total. By 1999, FDI stock had risen to over $83 billion (32% of GDP), and the United States share to 26.6%. FDI inflows were $6.6 billion in 1997, climbing to a peak of $16.3 billion in 2000, before falling back to about $10 billion in 2001.
Stocks of Swiss FDI abroad totaled $170 billion (62.3% of GDP) in 1997 rising to $205.2 billion (79% of GDP) in 1999. In 1999, the largest holders of Swiss outward FDI were the United States (with $45 billion, 23%); the United Kingdom ($23.7 billion, 11.5%); Germany ($17.4 billion, 8.5%); the Netherlands ($12.5 billion, 6.1%); and France ($10.4 billion, 5%).