Sweden - Famous swedes
Esaias Tegnér (1782–1846), considered the national poet of Sweden, and Erik Gustaf Geijer (1783–1847), historian and poet, are the best-known Swedish writers of the early 19th century. A new impulse was given to literature by August Strindberg (1849–1912), a major literary figure whose powerful, socially oriented plays and stories reflected the advanced thought of the age. Selma Lagerlöf (1858–1940), who won the Nobel Prize for literature in 1909, showed in her novels a depth of narrative genius reminiscent of the Norse sagas. Other Swedish winners of the Nobel Prize for literature were the novelist and poet Karl Gustav Verner von Heidenstam (1859–1940), in 1916; the novelist and short-story writer Pär Lagerkvist (1891–1974), in 1951; and the novelists Eyvind Johnson (1900–1976) and Harry Edmund Martinson (1904–78), who shared the 1974 award. A noted contemporary novelist is Vilhelm Moberg (1889–1974).
The painter, etcher, and sculptor Anders Leonhard Zorn (1860–1920) and the sculptor Carl Milles (1875–1955) are the greatest figures in Swedish art. The outstanding Swedish musician of the 19th century was Franz Adolf Berwald (1796–1868), composer of symphonies, operas, and chamber music. August Johan Söderman (1832–76) is considered the leading Swedish operatic composer. Two famous sopranos were Jenny Lind (1820–87), the "Swedish nightingale," and Christine (Kristina) Nilsson (1843–1921). Outstanding 20th-century musicians are the composers Wilhelm Stenhammar (1871–1927), Hugo Alfvén (1872–1960), Ture Rangström (1884–1947), Kurt Atterberg (1887–1974), Hilding Constantin Rosenberg (1892–1985), and the singers Jussi Björling (1910–60) and Birgit Nilsson (b.1918).
Famous 18th-century scientists were the astronomer and physicist Anders Celsius (1705–44), who devised the temperature scale named after him; the chemist Karl Wilhelm Scheele (1742–86); and the botanist Carolus Linnaeus (Carl von Linné, 1707–78), who established the classification schemes of plants and animals named after him. Emanuel Swedenborg (1688–1772) was a scientist, philosopher, and religious writer whose followers founded a religious sect in his name.
Svante August Arrhenius (1859–1927), a great pioneer in physical chemistry, is renowned for his theory of electrolytic dissociation and his speculations in the field of cosmic physics; in 1903, he was awarded the Nobel Prize for chemistry. Other Swedish Nobel Prize winners in science or medicine are Gustaf Dalén (1869–1957), for his work in automatic beacons for coast lighting (1912); Allvar Gullstrand (1862–1930), for work on dioptics of the eye (1911); Karl Manne Georg Siegbahn (1886–1978), for work on X-ray spectroscopy (1924); The (Theodor) Svedberg (1884–1971), for work in colloidal chemistry (1926); Hans Karl August Simon von Euler-Chelpin (b. Augsburg, 1873–1964), for work in enzyme chemistry (1929); George Karl de Hevesy (b. Budapest, 1885–1966), for work on isotopes (1943); Arne Wilhelm Kaurin Tiselius (1902–71), for investigations in electrophoresis (1948); Axel Hugo Theodor Theorell (1903–82), for work on enzymes (1955); Ragnar Arthur Granit (Finland, 1900–91), for "discoveries in primary physiological and chemical visual processes in the eye" (1967); Hannes Olof Gösta Alfvén (1908–95), for work in magnetohydrodynamics (1970); and Ulf von Euler-Chelpin (1905–83), for work on the treatment of nervous and mental disorders (1970). In addition, Kai M. Siegbahn (b.1918) shared the 1981 Nobel Prize in physics for developing spectroscopy; and Sune Karl Bergström (b.1916) and Bengt Ingemar Samuelsson (b.1934) shared the 1982 prize in medicine for their research on prostaglandins. Bergström has also served as chairman of the Nobel Foundation.
Three distinguished political economists are Karl Gunnar Myrdal (1898–1987), who was awarded the 1974 Nobel Prize in economic science for work in the theory of money and economic fluctuations and whose 1944 book An American Dilemma contributed to the overthrowing of legally sanctioned racial segregation in the US; Bertil Gotthard Ohlin (1899–1979), who shared the 1977 prize for his contribution to international trade theory; and Dag Hammarskjöld (1905–61), who was secretary-general of the UN from 1953 until his death and was posthumously awarded the 1961 Nobel Prize for peace. Other Swedish winners of the Nobel Peace Prize were Klas Pontus Arnoldson (1844–1916), in 1908; Karl Hjalmar Branting (1860–1925), in 1921; Nathan Söderblom (Lars Olof Jonathan, 1866–1931), in 1930; and Alva Reimer Myrdal (1902–86), the wife of Gunnar Myrdal, in 1982. Swedish inventors who have done much to promote manufacturing and technical advances include the Swedish-American John Ericsson (1803–89), who pioneered the screw propeller and designed the first Western armored-turret warship, the Monitor; Alfred Nobel (1833–96), inventor of dynamite and progenitor of the Nobel Prizes; Lars Magnus Ericsson (1846–1926), who contributed much to the development of telephones; and Gustaf de Laval (1845–1913), who developed steam turbines and invented a centrifugal cream separator.
One of the most noted film directors of our times is Ingmar Bergman (b.1918); other noted directors were Victor Seastrom (Sjöström, 1879–1960) and Mauritz (Moshe) Stiller (b.Finland, 1883–1928). Famous screen personalities have included Greta Garbo (Greta Louisa Gustafsson, 1905–90) and Ingrid Bergman (1917–82). More recent stars of Swedish theater and films include Erland Josephson (b.1923), Max Von Sydow (b.1929), Ingrid Thulin (b.1929), Harriet Andersson (b.1932), and Bibi Andersson (b.1935). Sweden's sports stars include five-time Wimbledon tennis champion Björn Borg (b.1956) and Alpine skiing champion Ingemar Stenmark (b.1956).