During 1970–2000, the proportion of the GDP from agriculture fell from 11.3% to 4%, and the proportion of workers employed in agriculture decreased from 26% to about 7%. Arable cropland in 1998 covered 14,285,000 hectares (35,298,000 acres), of which 67% was used for field crops, and 33% planted with olive trees, vineyards, and orchards.
Agricultural commodities harvested in 1999 (in thousands of tons) and area harvested (in thousands of hectares) totaled wheat, 5,084 per 2,242; barley, 7,399 per 3,119; corn, 3,777 per 399; rice, 845 per 112; beans, dry, 24 per 20; sugar beets, 7,998 per 138; sunflower seeds, 556 per 874; grapes, 4,969 per 1,163; peaches, 987 per 23; potatoes, 3,312 per 135; and tomatoes, 3,840 per 64. Grapes are cultivated in every region; the most important olive groves are in Andalucía. Within the domestic market, the use of sunflower oil and soybean oil has grown considerably.
Agricultural mechanization has been increasing steadily. In 1998 there were 841,932 tractors, and 49,729 harvesterthreshers. The use of fertilizers has also increased. The Institute for Agrarian Development and Reform directly or indirectly regulates some 10 million hectares (25 million acres) of land, promoting intensive cultivation and irrigation to improve productivity.