The Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts, founded in 1938, has institutes conducting research in biology, paleontology, and medicine. Headquartered in Ljubljana are the Association of Engineers and Technicians of Slovenia; the Association of Mathematicians, Physicists, and Astronomers of Slovenia, and the Society for Natural Sciences of Slovenia. The Ljubljana Geological Institute was founded in 1946, and the Institute for Karst Research a year later in Postojna. The University of Ljubljana has faculties of arts and sciences; natural sciences and technology; architecture, civil engineering, and geodesy; electrical and computer engineering; mechanical engineering; medicine; and veterinary medicine. The University of Maribor has a college of agriculture, a faculty of technical sciences, and a center for applied mathematics and theoretical physics. In 1987–97, science and engineering students accounted for 26% of university enrollment.
In 1987–97 research and development expenditures totaled 1.5% of GNP; 2,251 scientists and engineers and 1,027 technicians per one million people were engaged in research and development.