Portugal - Environment
Air and water pollution are significant environmental problems especially in Portugal's urban centers. Industrial pollutants include nitrous oxide, sulfur dioxides, and carbon emissions. In 1996, industrial carbon dioxide emissions totaled 47.9 million metric tons. The nation's water supply, especially in coastal areas, is threatened by pollutants from the oil and cellulose industries. Portugal has 37 cubic kilometers of renewable water, of which 53% is used to support farming and 40% is for industrial activity. In total, the nation's cities produce an average of 2.6 million tons of solid waste. The nation's wildlife and agricultural activities are threatened by erosion and desertification of the land.
The principal environmental agencies in Portugal include the Ministry of Quality of Life and the Office of the Secretary of State for the Environment. The nation's basic environmental legislation dates from 1976. In 2001, 13 of Portugal's mammal species and 7 of its bird species were endangered, as well as 186 plant species. Endangered species in Portugal include the Spanish Lynx, rosalia, Mediterranean monk seal, and Spanish imperial eagle. The São Miguel bullfinch and three species of turtle (green sea, hawksbill, and leatherback) were endangered in the Azores. The Mediterranean monk seal and four species of turtle (green sea, hawksbill, Kemp's ridley, and leatherback) were endangered in Madeira.