The population of Luxembourg in 2003 was estimated by the United Nations at 453,000, which placed it as number 163 in population among the 193 nations of the world. In that year approximately 14% of the population was over 65 years of age, with another 19% of the population under 15 years of age. There were 97 males for every 100 females in the country in 2003. According to the UN, the annual population growth rate for 2000–2005 is 1.32%, with the projected population for the year 2015 at 522,000. The population density in 2002 was 174 per sq km (450 per sq mi).
It was estimated by the Population Reference Bureau that 92% of the population lived in urban areas in 2001. The capital city, Luxembourg, had a population of 79,000 in that year. The chief industrial city is Esch-sur-Alzette, with a population of 24,012. Other urban areas include Dudelange, 14,677; Differdange, 8,489; and Schifflange, 6,859. According to the United Nations, the urban population growth rate for 2000–2005 was 0.7%.