There are many mutual insurance societies in addition to the national health and social insurance scheme. Almost all direct insurance is written by domestic companies that conduct business in the various kinds of property and life insurance. In 1995, there were at least 19 insurance companies operating. Automobile liability insurance and homeowners' coverage against fire, floods, earthquakes, and volcanic eruptions are compulsory. The Ministry of Insurance Affairs is the principal supervisory body. In 2001, there was $18 million worth of life insurance premiums written.