Although the housing stock increased from 3,122,000 units in 1970 to 3,846,000 in 1986, construction has not kept pace with the needs of Hungary's growing and increasingly urbanized population. The construction rate for new dwellings has been greater in smaller cities and towns than in Budapest, where as of 1980, 17.3% of all housing units were built before 1900 and 56.3% before 1945. In 1990, 57% of all housing units were made of brick, 22% were adobe, 14% were panel, and 7% were concrete. According to national statistics, in 2001 there were about 4,087,000 dwelling units nationwide. About 20,320 new dwellings were completed in 2000; about 31,511 dwellings were completed or under construction in 2001. Most homes have an average of four rooms. As of 2001, about 89.8% of all dwellings were linked to public water systems; about 44.1% of dwellings were linked to public sanitation systems.
Low-income reisdents and other private builders generally rely on the labor of family and friends, buying the essential materials little by little; they may apply for loans if necessary to complete the dwelling. In 1990, 76% of all dwellings were owner occupied and 24% were rented.