The population of Bosnia and Herzegovina in 2003 was estimated by the United Nations at 3,964,000, which placed it as number 120 in population among the 193 nations of the world. In that year approximately 8% of the population was over 65 years of age, with another 20% of the population under 15 years of age. There were 98 males for every 100 females in the country in 2003. According to the UN, the annual population growth rate for 2000–2005 is 1.13%, with the projected population for the year 2015 at 4,284,000. The population density in 2002 was 67 per sq km (173 per sq mi).
It was estimated by the Population Reference Bureau that 43% of the population lived in urban areas in 2001. The capital city, Sarajevo, had a population of 522,000 in that year. According to the United Nations, the urban population growth rate for 2000– 2005 was 2.3%.
Civil strife greatly reduced the population through war, genocide, and emigration. By 1996, there were an estimated two million Bosnian refugees and displaced persons. That year, there were an estimated 25,000 more deaths than births, creating a population decrease of 1%. By 2000 the population rose slightly to an estimated 3,591,618.