The population of Vietnam in 2003 was estimated by the United Nations at 81,377,000, which placed it as number 13 in population among the 193 nations of the world. In that year approximately 6% of the population was over 65 years of age, with another 31% of the population under 15 years of age. There were 99 males for every 100 females in the country in 2003. According to the UN, the annual population growth rate for 2000–2005 is 1.35%, with the projected population for the year 2015 at 94,742,000. The low growth rate is due to extensive family planning programs aimed to curb overpopulation. The population density in 2002 was 240 per sq km (622 per sq mi).
It was estimated by the Population Reference Bureau that 20% of the population lived in urban areas in 2001. The capital city, Hanoi, had a population of 1,074,000 in that year. Ho Chi Minh City is the largest urban area with a population of 3,678,000. According to the United Nations, the urban population growth rate for 2000–2005 was 2.2%.