Vietnam - Famous vietnamese
Important figures in Vietnamese history include the sisters Trung Trac and Trung Nhi, national heroines who led a revolt ( AD 40–43) against China when that nation was imperial master of Tonkin and North Annam; Ngo Quyen, who regained Vietnamese independence from China in 938; Tran Hung Dao, who defeated the forces of Kublai Khan in 1288; Emperor Le Loi, national hero and brilliant administrator, in whose reign the Vietnamese legal code was promulgated in 1407; Emperor Gia Long (d.1820), who reunified Vietnam in the early 19th century; and Le Van Duyet (1763–1832), a military leader who helped the emperor to unify the country.
Phan Boi Chau (1875–1940) was Vietnam's first modern nationalist and, like China's Sun Yat-sen, is claimed by Vietnamese Communists and nationalists alike as their spiritual leader. Ho Chi Minh ("The Enlightener"), born Nguyen That Thanh (1890–1969), was a man of many other pseudonyms. Ho Chi Minh was a founding member of the French Communist Party in 1920 and founded the Vietnamese Communist Party in 1930. Often referred to as "Uncle Ho," he was president of the DRV from 1945 until his death. General Vo Nguyen Giap (1912–1975), a professor of history turned strategist, organized the first anti-French guerrilla groups in 1944, led the Viet-Minh in its eight-year struggle against France, and defeated the French at Dien Bien Phu; subsequently he served as minister of defense, commander in chief of the army, and vice-premier of the DRV. Truong Chinh ("Long March," 1906–1988), the DRV's foremost Communist thinker, was secretary-general of the Vietnamese Communist Party from 1940 until 1956, when he was purged from his post for having mismanaged the land reform; exonerated shortly thereafter, he was president of the Council of State (1981–87). Pham Von Dong (b.1906), a member of the nobility, joined the Vietnamese revolutionary movement at its inception and became minister of foreign affairs in 1954, premier of the DRV in 1955, and premier of the SRV in 1976; he resigned in 1987. Le Duan (1907–86), first secretary of the Communist Party, presided over Vietnam's reunification and the formation of the SRV. Le Duc Tho (1911–1990), a member of the Communist Party Politburo but with no post in the government, was the DRV's chief negotiator in talks that led to the 1973 Paris Peace Agreement; for his role, Le shared with US Secretary of State Henry Kissinger the 1973 Nobel Peace Prize.
Prominent political figures in the formation of the RVN included Bao Dai (Nguyen Vinh Thuy; b.France, 1913–1997), who had served as nominal emperor of Annam under the Japanese and had attempted to form a unified national government after the war, and Ngo Dinh Diem (1901–63), who served as president of the RVN from its founding on 26 October 1955 until his overthrow and death in November 1963. Nguyen Cao Ky (b.1930), an RVN air force commander, took control of the government in the coup of June 1965. General Nguyen Van Thieu (b.1923) was elected president of the RVN in the elections of September 1967 (with Ky as his vice-presidential running mate), an office he retained until the RVN's defeat in 1975. Both Thieu and Ky left the country in 1975, Thieu taking up residence in Taiwan and Ky in the United States. The new leadership in the south, following the 1975 NLF victory, was headed by Pham Hung (1912–1988), chairman of the southern wing of the Communist Party since 1967; Huynh Thanh Phat (1913–1989), the PRG premier, who later became a member of the Council of State; and Nguyen Thi Binh (b.1927), the PRG's foreign affairs minister who had headed the NLF delegation at the Paris talks and who also became a Council of State Member. Pham Hung became premier of the SRV in 1987, and Vo Chi Cong (b.1913?) became president of the Council of State. Nguyen Van Linh (b.1913) became general secretary of the Communist Party in December 1986.
The 13th-century writer Nguyen Si Co is regarded as one of the first truly Vietnamese authors; he is best known for his collection titled Chieu Quan Cong Ho. Other leading literary figures are two 15th-century poets, Ho Huyen Qui and Nguyen Binh Khien; the latter's collection, Bach Van Thi Tap, is a classic of Vietnamese literature. Nguyen Du (1765–1820) wrote a famous novel in verse, Kim Van Kieu. Hoang Ngoc Phach, who wrote the romantic novel To Tam (1925), is credited with the introduction of Western literary standards into Vietnamese literature.