Vanuatu's earliest known settlers probably migrated from the northwestern Pacific about 3,000 years ago. They were followed a thousand years later by migrants from the Solomon Islands. Tradition describes a series of subsequent incursions. In the 19th century, thousands of New Hebrides islanders were recruited as indentured laborers for plantation work in Australia, Fiji, New Caledonia, and Samoa. This migration gradually died down after the establishment of the Anglo-French Condominium, although voluntary emigration to New Caledonia continued until independence. In recent years, adverse economic conditions have encouraged emigration to Fiji, New Zealand, and the US. The net migration rate in 2000 was -0.9 migrants per 1,000 population. Worker remittances that year amounted to $19 million, or 8.2% of GDP. The government views the migration levels as satisfactory.