The US Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) reports that in 2001 Turkmenistan's gross domestic product (GDP) was estimated at $21.5 billion. The per capita GDP was estimated at $4,700. The annual growth rate of GDP was estimated at 10%. The average inflation rate in 2001 was 10%. The CIA defines GDP as the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year and computed on the basis of purchasing power parity (PPP) rather than value as measured on the basis of the rate of exchange. It was estimated that agriculture accounted for 27% of GDP, industry 45%, and services 28%. Foreign aid receipts amounted to about $13 per capita and accounted for approximately 1% of the gross national income (GNI).
Approximately 32% of household consumption was spent on food, 14% on fuel, 6% on health care, and 18% on education. The richest 10% of the population accounted for approximately 31.7% of household consumption and the poorest 10% approximately 2.6%. Household consumption includes expenditures of individuals, households, and nongovernmental organizations on goods and services, excluding purchases of dwellings. It was estimated that in 2001 about 34% of the population had incomes below the poverty line.