Singapore - Science and technology
The Science Council, established in 1967, advises the Minister for Trade and Industry on scientific and technological matters relating to research and development and to the training and utilization of manpower. The Singapore National Academy of Science promotes the advancement of science and technology, and the Singapore Association for the Advancement of Science, founded in 1976, disseminates science and technology. Other major scientific and technical learned societies and research facilities include an academy of medicine, an institute of physics, an institute of technical education, botanical gardens, a mathematical society, and a medical association. Scientific education is stressed at the university level and supported by training programs for more than 20,000 students (1990) in the nation's technical and vocational institutes. Special centers have been established for research on cancer, human reproduction, viruses, and immunology. Two new research institutions were established in 1985: the Institute of Systems Science, which does research in the area of information technology, and the Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, a center for biotechnological research. The Singapore Science Park, located near the National University of Singapore, was developed in 1987. In 1993, the National Computer Board announced an effort to create an "intelligent island" through an information infrastructure linking all of Singapore. In the 1987–97, Singapore had 2,318 scientists and engineers and 301 technicians per million population engaged in research and development. In 1998, high-technology exports were valued at $54.8 million and accounted for 59% of manufactured exports.
In 1991, the government announced a S $250 million spending program to create science and high technology parks. Expenditures for research and development totaled 1.13% of GNP in 1987–97 and were funded by both the private sector and government incentives.
Courses in basic and applied sciences are offered at Nanyang Technical University (founded in 1981), the National University of Singapore (founded in 1980 by merger), Ngee Ann Polytechnic (founded in 1963), Singapore Polytechnic (founded in 1954), and Temasek Polytechnic (founded in 1990).