Singapore - Mining
There was no mining in Singapore. However, although the city-state had limited natural resources, it was one of the most important shipping centers in the world. Singapore was the world's third-largest oil-refining center, behind Houston and Rotterdam, and was the major oil and metal futures trading market in Asia. The production of chemicals was the second leading industry in 2002, and the manufacture of oil drilling equipment and petroleum refining ranked fourth and fifth, respectively. Chemicals, mineral fuels, and petroleum products ranked among the top five export commodities. Because of environmental concerns, the government planned to close down all grinding operations by 2000; Singapore had no integrated cement plant and local operations ground imported clinker to produce cement.