The Philippines, under its commitments to ASEAN, must accelerate its tariff reductions as part of in its AFTA Common Preferential Tariff (CEPT) Inclusion List. As of 2000, the Philippines was the furthest behind of any of the six original ASEAN members in implementing this plan. The Philippines, as a member of the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) forum, is also committed to the establishment of free trade in the region and is expected to eliminate intra-regional barriers by 2020. The government developed a separate plan in 1996 to lower tariffs to no more than 3% on raw materials and 10% on finished products by January 2003, and a uniform 5% tariff rate by January 2004. There is also a value-added tax (VAT) of 10% on almost all imports and excise taxes are levied on alcohol and tobacco products, automobiles, and other luxury items.