Mongolia - Media
In 1999, there were 104,100 mainline telephones in use, with an additional 110,000 cellular phones in use in 2001. Radio broadcasting began in the MPR in 1934. Radio Ulaanbaatar broadcasts programs in Mongolian, Russian, Chinese, English, French, and Kazakh. Mongel Telev 12, which transmits locally produced programs, and a satellite station are also located in Ulaanbaatar. In 2001 there were 7 AM and 9 FM radio stations. As of 1999, there were four television stations. In 2000 there were 154 radios and 65 television sets for every 1,000 people. In 2001 Internet access was available through five service providers, with 30,000 subscribers that year.
The newspapers of the MPR (together with the organizations that publish them) include Unen (Central Committee of the MPRP, 1999 circulation 170,000); Ardyn Erh (Mongolian Great Hural and Cabinet, circulation 77,500); Novosti Mongoliy (the Mongolian News Agency); Hodolmor, the organ of the trade unions; Dzaluuchuudyn Unen (Central Committee of the Mongolian Revolutionary Youth League); Shine Hodoo (Ministry of Agriculture and the Supreme Council of the Federation of Agricultural Cooperatives); Utga Dzohiol Urlag (the Union of Mongolian Writers and the Ministry of Culture); and Ulaan Od (Ministry of Defense and the Ministry of Public Security). Also published are 41 periodicals, including Namyn Am'dral, a journal of the Central Committee of the MPRP, and Shinjleh Uhaan Am'dral, a bimonthly publication of the Mongolian Academy of Sciences.
The constitution provides for freedom of expression, including free speech and a free press, and the government is said to respect these rights in practice.