Mongolia - Government



A new constitution went into effect 12 February 1992, replacing the 1960 constitution and completing Mongolia's transition from a single-party state to a multiparty, parliamentary form of government. At that time, the country's name was officially changed from "Mongolian People's Republic" to "Mongolia." Suffrage is universal at age 18. The unicameral legislature, the State Great Hural (SGH), has 76 members, who are elected by district to four-year terms. The SGH meets twice each year. It can enact and amend laws, set domestic and foreign policy, ratify international agreements, and declare a state of emergency.

A president, the head of state and commander-in-chief of the armed forces, is selected by direct, popular vote for a four-year term, with a limit of two terms. The president nominates the prime minister and can call for the dissolution of the government, initiate and veto legislation (subject to override by two-thirds vote of the SGH), and issue decrees which take effect with the signature of the prime minister.

A prime minister, the head of government, is nominated by the president and confirmed by the SGH to a four-year term. The prime minister selects a cabinet which must be confirmed by the SGH. The government dissolves when the prime minister resigns, when half the cabinet resigns simultaneously, or upon a vote for dissolution by the SGH.

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