Solid waste disposal in urban areas is a continuing problem and the land is threatened by toxic pollutants from mining operations. Micronesia's water supply is also threatened by industrial and agricultural pollutants. Population increases in urban areas, untreated sewage, and contaminants from industrialized countries in the region add to the problem of water pollution.
United Nations research shows that global warming and the rise of sea levels are a threat to Micronesia's forests, agricultural areas, and fresh-water supply. Pollution from industrial and agricultural sources also threatens the nation's mangrove areas. The fish population is endangered by waterborne toxins and explosives used in commercial fishing. The country also has a problem with the degeneration of its reefs due to tourism. In 1984, the government established an FSM Environmental Protection Board.
Threatened species include the chuuk flying-fox, the chuuk monarch, and the Mortlock Islands flying-fox. The Kosrae crake and the Kosrae mountain starling have become extinct.