The US Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) reports that in 2001 Malaysia's gross domestic product (GDP) was estimated at $200 billion. The per capita GDP was estimated at $9,000. The annual growth rate of GDP was estimated at 0.3%. The average inflation rate in 2001 was 1.5%. The CIA defines GDP as the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year and computed on the basis of purchasing power parity (PPP) rather than value as measured on the basis of the rate of exchange. It was estimated that agriculture accounted for 12% of GDP, industry 40%, and services 48%. Foreign aid receipts amounted to about $1 per capita.
The World Bank reports that in 2001 per capita household consumption (in constant 1995 US dollars) was $2,129. Household consumption includes expenditures of individuals, households, and nongovernmental organizations on goods and services, excluding purchases of dwellings. The richest 10% of the population accounted for approximately 38.4% of household consumption and the poorest 10% approximately 1.7%. It was estimated that in 1998 about 8% of the population had incomes below the poverty line.