The population of Kazakhstan in 2003 was estimated by the United Nations at 15,433,000, which placed it as number 61 in population among the 193 nations of the world. In that year approximately 7% of the population was over 65 years of age, with another 29% of the population under 15 years of age. There were 92 males for every 100 females in the country in 2003. According to the UN, the annual population growth rate for 2000–2005 is -0.36%, with the projected population for the year 2015 falling to 15,328,000. The population density in 2002 was 5 per sq km (14 per sq mi). Most people live in the east and north.
It was estimated by the Population Reference Bureau that 56% of the population lived in urban areas in 2001. The capital city, Astana, had a population of 303,000 in that year. The former capital, Almaty, is the largest city with a population of 1,129,400. Other major metropolitan areas include Karaganda, 596,000; Chimkent, 404,000; Pavlodar, 349,000; Semipalatinsk, 342,000; and Ust-Kamenogorsk, 334,000. According to the United Nations, the urban population growth rate for 2000–2005 was0.2%.