As of 2001, there were 1.92 million mainline phones, with an additional 400,000 cellular phones in use nationwide. Kazakhstan is connected to the other former Soviet republics by land line or microwave and to other countries through Moscow.
Kazak Radio broadcasts in Kazak, Russian, Uighur, German, and Korean. Kazak Television, established in 1959, broadcasts in the same languages except for Korean. In 1998, there were 60 AM and 17 FM radio stations. As of 2001, the five government-owned television channels are the only ones which broadcast nationwide. There were 30 independent television stations the same year. In 2000, there were 422 radios and 241 television sets for every 1,000 people. In 2001, there were ten Internet service providers serving about 85,000 subscribers.
Leading newspapers in 2002 included Kazakhstanskaya Pravda (Kazakhstan Truth), Didar Kazakhstan , Khalyk Kenesi (Councils of People), Leninshil Zhas (Leninist Youth), Leninskaya Smena (Leninist Rising Generation) , and Yegemen Kazakhstan (Sovereign Kazakhstan) .
The constitution and 1991 Press Law provide for a free press, although in practice the media is said to perform self-censorship in key subject areas, especially criticism of the president and other government officials.