Kazakhstan - Domestic trade
The wholesale and retail sector, previously dominated by state-controlled distribution channels, has seen the dynamic growth of independent small shops and traders. Price controls have been lifted for 90% of consumer and 80% of wholesale prices, although basic goods and services such as bread, flour, baby food, medicines, fodder, housing rents, utilities, and public transportation have been excluded from liberalization. A 16% value added tax applies to most goods and services.
The country sponsors a number of trade exhibitions through the year, including The Kazakhstan Oil and Gas Exhibition, held in Almaty every October, and a Consumer Expo in April.