The founder of Jordan's Hashemite dynasty—the term stems from the Hashemite (or Hashimite) branch of the tribe of the Prophet Muhammad—was Hussein ibn-'Ali (Husayn bin 'Ali, 1856–1931), sharif of Mecca and king of the Hijaz.
As a separate Arab country, Jordan has had a relatively short history, during which only two men have become internationally known. The first of these was the founder of the kingdom, 'Abdallah ibn-Husayn (1882–1951). Although he was born in Hijaz and was a son of the sharif of Mecca, he made 'Amman his headquarters. He was recognized as emir in 1921 and king in 1946. The second was his grandson, King Hussein I (Husayn ibn-Talal, 1935–99), who ruled from 1953 until his death. In June 1978, 16 months after the death by helicopter crash of Queen Alia (1948–77), Hussein married his fourth wife, the Queen Noor al-Hussein (Elizabeth Halaby, b. US, 1951).