Chambers of commerce are active in Baghdad, Basra, and Mosul. Cooperatives, first established in 1944, have played an increasingly important social role, especially under the post-1968 Ba'th government. There are many youth centers and sports clubs. Scouting programs are active. The General Federation of Iraqi Youth and the General Federation of Iraqi Women are government-sponsored mass organizations. The Women's Union of Kurdistan (WUK), established in 1989, works toward improving the lifestyle and social development of women by publishing educational magazines and presenting educational seminars on health, education, and legal issues. Red Crescent societies provide social services in many cities and towns.