Gajah Mada, prime minister under King Hayam Wuruk (r.1350–89), brought many of the islands under one rule, the Majapahit Empire. Princess Raden Ajeng Kartini (1879–1904), founder of a school for girls, led the movement for the emancipation of women. Her posthumously published letters, Door duisternis tot licht, occasioned considerable interest in the Western world. Many creative and performing artists have attained local prominence, but Indonesia's only internationally known artist is the painter Affandi (1910–90). Contemporary novelists of considerable local importance include Mochtar Lubis (b.1922).H. B. Jassin (b.1917) is an influential literary critic. Sukarno (1901–70), a founder and leader of the nationalist movement, is the best-known figure of modern Indonesia; Mohammad Hatta (1902–80), one of the architects of Indonesian independence, served as Sukarno's vice-president and concurrently as prime minister. President Suharto (b.1921), leader of Indonesia after Sukarno's overthrow, dominated Indonesia's political and economic life for three decades (1968–98). Adam Malik (1917–84) established an international reputation as a negotiator in restoring and improving relations with Malaysia, the Philippines, the United States, the United Kingdom, and the UN; formerly a foreign minister (1966–77), he became vice-president (1978–83). Umar Wirahadikusumah (b.1924), a retired army general, became vice-president in 1983.