INDIA



India 1615
Photo by: Kailash K Soni

Republic of India

Bharat Ganarajya

CAPITAL : New Delhi

FLAG : The national flag, adopted in 1947, is a tricolor of deep saffron, white, and green horizontal stripes. In the center of the white stripe is a blue wheel representing the wheel (chakra) that appears on the abacus of Asoka's lion capital (c.250 BC ) at Sarnath, Uttar Pradesh.

ANTHEM : Jana gana mana (Thou Art the Ruler of the Minds of All People ). A national song of equal status is Vande Mataram (I Bow to Thee, Mother).

MONETARY UNIT : The rupee ( R ) is a paper currency of 100 paise. There are coins of 5, 10, 20, 25, and 50 paise, and 1, 2, and 5 rupees, and notes of 2, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, and 500 rupees. R 1 = 0.02129 (or $1 = R 46.97) as of May 2003.

WEIGHTS AND MEASURES : Metric weights and measures, introduced in 1958, replaced the British and local systems. Indian numerical units still in use include the lakh (equal to 100,000) and the crore (equal to 10 million).

HOLIDAYS : Republic Day, 26 January; Independence Day, 15 August; Gandhi Jayanti, 2 October. Annual events—some national, others purely local, and each associated with one or more religious communities—number in the hundreds. The more important include Shivarati in February; and Raksha Bandhan in August. Movable religious holidays include Holi, Ganesh Chaturthi, Durga Puja, Dussehra, 'Id al-Fitr, Dewali; and Christmas, 25 December.

TIME : 5:30 PM = noon GMT.


BIBLIOGRAPHY

Alexander, Yonah (ed.). Combating Terrorism: Strategies of Ten Countries. Ann Arbor, Mich.: University of Michigan Press, 2002.

Barter, James. The Ganges. San Diego, CA: Lucent Books, 2003.

Becker, Charles M. Indian Urbanization and Economic Growth since 1960. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1992.

Bhattacharya, Sabyasachi (ed.). The South Indian Economy: Agrarian Change, Industrial Structure, and State Policy, c. 1914–1947. New York: Oxford University Press, 1991.

Bhattacharyya, Narendra Nath. Indian Religious Historiography. New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers, 1996.

Brown, Judith M. Modern India: The Origins of an Asian Democracy. 2d ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 1994.

Cassels, Jamie. The Uncertain Promise of Law: Lessons from Bhopal. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1993.

Caste Today. Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1996.

Chakravarti, Ranabir (ed.). Trade in Early India. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001.

Choudhury, R. A., Shama Gamkhar, and Aurobindo Ghose (eds.). The Indian Economy and its Performance since Independence. Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1990.

Contesting the Nation: Religion, Community, and the Politics of Democracy in India. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1996.

Dash, Narendra Kumar. An Encyclopaedic Dictionary of Indian Culture. Delhi: Agam Kala Prakashan, 1992.

Diwan, Paras. Human Rights and the Law: Universal and Indian. New Delhi: Deep and Deep, 1996.

Economic History of India. Mumbai (formerly Bombay): Shri Bhagavan Vedavyasa Itihasa Samshodhana Mandira (Bhishma), 1996.

Encyclopaedia Indica: India, Pakistan, Bangladesh. New Delhi: Anmol Publication, 1996.

Encyclopaedia of India and Her States. New Delhi: Deep and Deep, 1996.

Gehlot, N. S. Indian Government and Politics. New Delhi: Rawat Publications, 1996.

Ghosh, Arun (ed.). An Encyclopedia of Indian Archaeology. New York: E. J. Brill, 1990.

——. Indian Industrialization: Structure and Policy Issues. New York: Oxford University Press, 1992.

Hazarika, Joysankar. Geopolitics of North East India: A Strategical Study. New Delhi: Gyan Publishing House, 1996.

Heehs, Peter. The Bomb in Bengal: The Rise of Revolutionary Terrorism in India, 1900–1910. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993.

Jalan, Bimal. India's Economic Crisis: The Way Ahead. New York: Oxford University Press, 1991.

—— (ed.). The New Cambridge History of India. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1987–1993.

Mansingh, Surjit. Historical Dictionary of India. Lanham, Md.: Scarecrow Press, 1996.

Mathur, Krishan D. Conduct of India's Foreign Policy. New Delhi: South Asian Publishers, 1996.

Stern, Robert W. Democracy and Dictatorship in South Asia: Dominant Classes and Political Outcomes in India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh. Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 2001.

Studdert-Kennedy, Gerald. British Christians, Indian Nationalists, and the Raj Studdert-Kennedy. New York: Oxford University Press, 1991.

Tobias, Michael. A Day in the Life of India. San Francisco: Collins Publishers San Francisco, 1996.

Tomlinson, B. R. The Economy of Modern India, 1860–1970. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1993.

Vohra, Ranbir. The Making of India: A Historical Survey. Armonk, N.Y.: M. E. Sharp, 1997.

Wolpert, Stanley A. India. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1991.

——. A New History of India. 4th ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993.

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