Most widely known of Cypriots in the pre-Christian world was the philosopher Zeno (335?–263? BC ), who expounded his philosophy of Stoicism chiefly in the marketplace of Athens.
Makarios III (1913–77), archbishop and ethnarch from 1950 and a leader in the struggle for independence, was elected the first president of Cyprus in December 1959, and reelected in 1968 and 1973. His successor as president, Spyros Kyprianou (1932–2002), also was twice elected to the office, in 1978 and 1983. Rauf Denktash (Denktas¸ b. 1924), the leader of the Turkish Cypriot community, was elected vice-president of Cyprus in 1973, became president of the TCFS in 1975, and of the TRNC in 1983; he was reelected in 1985.