BHUTAN



Kingdom of Bhutan

Druk-Yul

CAPITAL : Thimphu (Tashi Chho Dzong)

FLAG : The flag is divided diagonally into an orange-yellow field above and a crimson field below. In the center is a wingless white Chinese dragon.

ANTHEM : Gyelpo Tenjur, beginning "In the Thunder Dragon Kingdom, adorned with sandalwood."

MONETARY UNIT : The ngultrum ( N ) is a paper currency of 100 chetrum. There are coins of 5, 10, 25, and 50 chetrum and 1 ngultrum, and notes of 1, 5, 10, and 100 ngultrum. The ngultrum is at par with the Indian rupee ( R ), which also circulates freely. N 1 = $0.0213 (or $1 = N 46.97) as of May 2003.

WEIGHTS AND MEASURES : The metric system is the legal standard, but some traditional units are still in common use.

HOLIDAYS : King's Birthday, 11–13 November; National Day, 17 December. Movable Buddhist holidays and festivals are observed.

TIME : 5:30 PM = noon GMT.


LANGUAGES

Four main languages are spoken in Bhutan. The official language is Dzongkha, a Tibetan dialect spoken mainly by Ngalop in the northern and western parts of the country. Bumthangkha, an aboriginal language, is spoken in central Bhutan, while Sharchopkha is spoken in eastern Bhutan. Both of these are used in primary schools in areas where their speakers predominate. The Nepalese largely retain their own language, Nepali.

ARMED FORCES

The armed forces consist of the Royal Bhutan Army, the National Militia, the Royal Bhutan Police, body guards, and a paramilitary force. The army is trained and equipped by India. In 2001 military expenditures were $9.3 million, or 1.9% GDP.

FISHING

The government has established a hatchery and started a program of stocking Bhutan's rivers and lakes with brown trout. Freshwater fish are found in most waterways. The total catch was 330 tons in 2000.

FORESTRY

About 64% of Bhutan's land area was covered with forests in 2000. Although lack of transportation facilities has hampered forest development, timber has become a major export. Roundwood production in 2000 totaled 4.2 million cu m (148 million cu ft), about 99% of which was used for fuel.

SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

Royal Bhutan Polytechnic College, founded in 1974 in Deothang, offers courses in civil, mechanical and electrical engineering. The Royal Technical Institute in Phuntsholing offers courses in electronics, mechanics, and motor mechanics. Sherubtse Degree College, founded in 1983 in Tashigang, offers science courses.

FAMOUS BHUTANESE

Jigme Dorji Wangchuk (1928–72) instituted numerous social reforms during his reign as king of Bhutan. He was succeeded by his son Jigme Singye Wangchuk (b.1955).

DEPENDENCIES

Bhutan has no territories or colonies.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Aris, Michael. The Raven Crown: The Origins of Buddhist Monarchy in Bhutan. London: Serindia, 1994.

Basu, Gautam Kumar. Bhutan: The Political Economy of Development. New Delhi: South Asian Publishers, 1996.

Bhutan: Aspects of Culture and Development. Gartmore, Scotland: Kiscadale, 1994.

Bhutan: Perspectives on Conflict and Dissent. Gartmore, Scotland: Kiscadale, 1994.

Das, B. S. (Brajbir Saran). Mission to Bhutan: A Nation in Transition. New Delhi: Vikas Pub. House, 1995.

Dhakal, D. N. S. Bhutan: A Movement in Exile. Jaipur: Nirala Publications, 1994.

Dogra, R. C. Bhutan. Oxford, England; Santa Barbara, Calif.: Clio Press, 1990.

Fraser, Neil. Geography of a Himalayan Kingdom: Bhutan. New Delhi: Concept Publishing, 2001.

Gibbons, Robert, and Bob Ashford. Himalayan Kingdoms: Nepal, Sikkim, and Bhutan . New York: Hippocrene, 1983.

Hellum, A. K. A Painter's Year in the Forests of Bhutan. Edmonton: University of Alberta Press, 2001.

Johnson, Gordon. Cultural Atlas of India: India, Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka. New York: Facts on File, 1996.

Kohli, Manorama, From Dependency to Enterdependence: A Study of Indo-Bhutan Relations. New Delhi: Vikas Pub. House, 1993.

Nepal and Bhutan: Country Studies Savada, 3rd ed. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1993.

Pommaret-Imaeda, Françoise, and Yoshiro Imaeda. Bhutan: A Kingdom in the Eastern Himalayas . Translated by Ian Nobel. Boston: Shambhala, 1985.

Rose, Leo E. The Politics of Bhutan . Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1977.

Singh, Amar Kaur Jasbir. Himalayan Triangle: A Historical Survey of British India's Relations with Tibet, Sikkim and Bhutan 1765–1950. London: British Library, 1988.

Also read article about Bhutan from Wikipedia

User Contributions:

Comment about this article, ask questions, or add new information about this topic:

CAPTCHA