The population of Bahrain in 2003 was estimated by the United Nations at 724,000, which placed it as number 156 in population among the 193 nations of the world. In that year approximately 3% of the population was over 65 years of age, with another 28% of the population under 15 years of age. There were 135 males for every 100 females in the country in 2003. According to the UN, the annual population growth rate for 2000–2005 is 2.17%, with the projected population for the year 2015 at 900,000. The population density in 2002 was 971 per sq km (2,515 per sq mi).
It was estimated by the Population Reference Bureau that 92% of the population lived in urban areas in 2001. The capital city, Manama, had a population of 162,000 in that year. Manama is connected by causeway with the other major city, Al-Muharraq, population 75,906. According to the United Nations, the urban population growth rate for 2000–2005 was 1.6%.
The vast majority of the population lives on the main island of Bahrain. There are approximately 230,000 foreign workers living in the country.