The topography of Azerbaijan features the large, flat Kura-Aras Lowland (much of it below sea level) surrounded on three sides by mountains. The Great Caucasus Mountains are to the north, the Lesser Caucasus Mountains are to the southwest, and the Talish Mountains are in the south along the border with Iran. The Karabakh Upland lies in the west. About 19% of Azerbaijan's land is arable with approximately 16% under irrigation.
The Nakhichevan exclave lies to the west, separated from the rest of Azerbaijan by Armenia. Nakhichevan also shares borders with Turkey and Iran.