Eric Eustace Williams (1911–81), the main political figure of his time and the leader of Trinidad and Tobago's major political party, was instrumental in his country's achievement of independence in 1962; he was prime minister from 1961 until his death. His successor was George Michael Chambers (1928–1997). A.N.R. Robinson (b.1926) became prime minister in 1986. Notable writers include Samuel Selvon (1923–1994) and V.S. (Vidiadhur Surajprasad) Naipaul (b.1932).