SASKATCHEWAN



Saskatchewan

Saskatchewan

ORIGIN OF PROVINCE NAME: Derived from the Cree Indian word kisiskatchewanisipi, which means "swift-flowing river," and was first used to describe the Saskatchewan River.

NICKNAME: Canada's Breadbasket (also: The Wheat Province).

CAPITAL: Regina.

ENTERED CONFEDERATION: 1 September 1905.

MOTTO: Multis e gentibus vires (From many peoples strength). Coat of Arms: In the center, the provincial shield of arms displays a red lion, which symbolizes loyalty to the British Crown, and (over a field of green) three gold wheat sheaves, which symbolize Saskatchewan's agriculture. Above the shield is a crest with a beaver holding a western red lily and carrying a royal crown on its back. Supporting the shield are a lion on the left and a deer on the right; both wear collars made of Prairie Indian beads. Beneath the shield the provincial motto appears on a scroll entwined with western red lilies. The red signifies the fires that once swept the prairies, green represents vegetation, and gold symbolizes ripening grain.

FLAG: Horizontal bars of equal width with green above (for the northern forests) and yellow below (for the southern grain region). The provincial shield of arms appears in the upper quarter on the staff side and a western red lily lies in the half farthest from the staff.

FLORAL EMBLEM: Western red lily (also known as the prairie lily).

TARTAN: Saskatchewan Tartan (gold, brown, green, red, yellow, white, and black).

PROVINCIAL BIRD: Prairie sharp-tailed grouse.

TREE: White birch.

TIME: 6 AM CST = noon GMT; 5 AM MST = noon GMT.

1 LOCATION AND SIZE

Saskatchewan, almost rectangular in shape, is located between the two other prairie provinces, with Manitoba to the east and Alberta to the west. The Northwest Territories are to the north, and the US states of Montana and North Dakota are to the south. Saskatchewan covers some 251,700 square miles (651,900 square kilometers). It is the only province formed entirely of man-made borders.

2 TOPOGRAPHY

The northern part of Saskatchewan lies on the Canadian Shield geologic formation which stretches across much of Canada. As a result, there are numerous lakes (nearly 100,000), rivers, bogs, and rocky outcroppings. About one-eighth of the entire province is covered with water. The southern part of the province is relatively flat prairie, with occasional valleys created by erosion from the glacial era. The south is where most of the population lives. The highest point is at Cypress Hills, 4,566 feet (1,392 meters) above sea level. The province has three major river systems, which all empty into Hudson Bay: North and South Saskatchewan, Assiniboine, and Churchill. Saskatoon, the largest city, is divided by the South Saskatchewan River.

Athabasca Provincial Park has sand dunes 100 feet (30 meters) high and semi-arid vegetation. Nowhere else in the world are dunes found so far north.

3 CLIMATE

The whole province enjoys a hot, dry summer. The town of Estevan in the southeast averages 2,540 hours of sunshine per year, more than any other city in Canada.

In Regina, the normal daily temperature ranges from 0°F (-18°C) in January to 66°F (19°C) in July. Normal daily temperatures for Saskatoon are -2°F (-19°C) in January and 66°F (19°C) in July. The recorded high temperature in Saskatchewan of 113°F (45°C) was set on 5 July 1937 at Midale; the record low, -70°F (-56.7°C), was set on 1 February 1893 at Prince Albert.

Saskatchewan Population Profile

Saskatchewan

Estimated 2003 population 994,800
Population change, 1996–2001 -1.1%
Percent Urban/Rural populations
Urban 64.3%
Rural 35.7%
Foreign born population 5.0%
Population by ethnicity
German 275,060
Canadian 240,535
English 235,715
Scottish 172,300
Irish 139,205
Ukrainian 121,735
French 109,800
North American Indian 102,285
Norwegian 60,510
Polish 51,445
Métis 40,110

Population by Age Group
Population by Age Group

Top Cities with Populations over 10,000
Top Cities with Populations over 10,000

City Population, 2001
Saskatoon 198,816
Regina 178,225
Prince Albert 34,752
Moose Jaw 32,631
Lloydminster 20,988
Lloydminster (in Alberta) 13,148
Lloydminster (in Saskatchewan) 7,840
North Battleford 17,117
Yorkton 15,222
Swift Current 14,821
Estevan 10,242

4 PLANTS AND ANIMALS

Saskatchewan's southern plains were once covered by native prairie grass. Grass fires started by nature would often sweep over the plains. Western wheat grass, snowberry, and silver sage are common to Grasslands National Park, located in the extreme south. To the north, several types of berries and wildflowers, Labrador tea, and feather moss are commonly found

Saskatchewan
under the aspens and black spruce trees of Prince Albert National Park.

The prairie sharp-tailed grouse, one of the province's most common native game birds, is the official bird of Saskatchewan. Other common bird species include the Hungarian partridge, ruffed grouse, and spruce grouse. Bison, eagles, osprey, white pelicans, beaver, elk, moose, and wolves inhabit Prince Albert National Park. Golden eagles, pronghorn antelope, prairie rattlesnakes, sage grouse, prairie falcons, bobcats, and porcupines are found in Grasslands National Park. Endangered and threatened species include ferruginous hawks, short-horned lizards, and burrowing owls. Lake trout, walleye, northern pike, and Arctic grayling are among 68 fish species in the province.

In 1997, the worst outbreak of avian botulism (a fatal bacterial disease among birds) in decades was reported at Saskatchewan's Old Wives Lake, where an estimated one million birds died (85 percent ducks).

5 ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

Solid waste generation amounted to 828,359 tons in 2000, or 1,788 pounds (811 kilograms) per person. Saskatchewan is actively participating in efforts to address climate change and greenhouse gas emissions. However, as of 2002, Saskatchewan did not support the Kyoto Protocol emissions target set by the Canadian government.

6 POPULATION

Saskatchewan's 2001 population of 978,933 is about 3 percent of the national population. Saskatchewan's population density is the lowest among the four provinces of western Canada. As of 2001, 29 percent of all residents were under 19 years of age. The median age increased from 32.6 years in 1991 to 36.7 years in 2001. That was still younger than the national average of 37.6 years, however. Saskatoon had 196,816 residents, while Regina had 178,225 in 2001. Other large cities and their populations include Prince Albert, 34,752; Moose Jaw, 32,631; Lloydminster, 20,988; and North Battleford, 17,117.

7 ETHNIC GROUPS

Saskatchewan is the only province where the number of people of British or French background is smaller than the number of people from other ethnic groups. Various European ethnic groups are found here, including British, German, Ukrainian, French, Norwegian, Polish, Dutch, Swedish, and Russian. Its Aboriginal (Native Peoples) population was 102,285 in 2001, or 10.6 percent of the total. Many other non-European peoples (Chinese, blacks, Indians and other southern Asians, and Filipinos) live in Saskatchewan as well.

8 LANGUAGES

In 2001, 84.9 percent of all Saskatchewaners claimed English as their first language, 1.8 percent reported French, and 12.3 percent reported some other first language (1 percent had two or more native languages).

Regina is the capital of Saskatchewan. However, the area is also important to wildlife. The airspace between Regina and Saskatoon is one of the busiest corridors for migrating ducks and geese in North America. Canadian Tourism Commission photo.
Regina is the capital of Saskatchewan. However, the area is also important to wildlife. The airspace between Regina and Saskatoon is one of the busiest corridors for migrating ducks and geese in North America.
Canadian Tourism Commission photo.

9 RELIGIONS

Most Saskatchewaners are Christian. Close to half of the population, or 449,195 people, are Protestant. The leading Protestant denominations are represented, including United Church of Canada members, Lutherans, Anglicans, Pentecostals, Baptists, and Presbyterians. Catholics—31.7 percent of the population—number 305,390. About 1.5 percent of Saskatchewaners are Eastern Orthodox. Other faiths are also represented in smaller numbers, including Muslims, Buddhists, Hindus, Sikhs, and Jews. About 151,455 Saskatchewaners report no religious affiliation.

10 TRANSPORTATION

During the frontier era, waterways such as the Clearwater and Churchill Rivers became established fur-trade routes, as did the overland Carlton Trail.

At 150,000 miles (250,000 kilometers), Saskatchewan today has more road surface than any other province. In 2003, registered road motor vehicles numbered 709,788. There were also 3,820 buses, 5,132 motorcycles and mopeds, and 110,843 trailers. Both Regina and Saskatoon have bus systems with more than 110 buses in each fleet.

Saskatchewan currently has over 800 miles (1,300 kilometers) of railways under provincial jurisdiction. International airports are located at Regina and Saskatoon.

11 HISTORY

Fur and Farming

Saskatchewan is referred to as one of Canada's Prairie Provinces because its southern geography consists of extensive plains. The first European explorers and trappers to visit Saskatchewan found established settlements of Aboriginal, or native, peoples. The Chipewyan Indians lived in the north, the nomadic Blackfoot roamed the eastern plains, and the Assiniboine inhabited the west. The territory of the Cree, who were long-time residents of the north, also extended southward to the plains.

The earliest explorer to the region was England's Henry Kelsey of the Hudson's Bay Company. Around 1690 he followed the Saskatchewan River to the southern plains of Saskatchewan, which was especially good fur-trapping country. Fur-trading companies and trading posts soon sprang up, becoming the foundation of many present-day settlements.

Threats to Natives' Way of Life

For about 200 years, the Hudson's Bay Company owned and oversaw the vast Northwest Territories, including Saskatchewan. Because these regions were perfect for farming and colonizing, the Government of Canada purchased the Territories in 1870. The passage of the Dominion Lands Act in 1872 encouraged families known as homesteaders to acquire, live on, and cultivate tracts of Saskatchewan farmland. Another act was passed to help stimulate immigration, and the establishment of a new railway began bringing waves of settlers into these rich lands.

As more and more Europeans arrived in the area, the Native people began to worry that they would be pushed out and lose control of their land, their language, and their political rights. When the Métis, people of mixed French and Indian heritage, approached the federal government with their concerns, they were told that they had no legal claim to the land. This led to a long conflict known as the North West Rebellion, during which the Métis fought hard for their native land. When it was all over, the Native peoples were forced to surrender to the Canadian government's forces. Many of the Métis ended up leaving their land and moving elsewhere.

Economic Changes

After the Métis uprising had been brought under control, immigration and settlement of the area expanded rapidly. When the Territories became too large to manage, they were reorganized. Saskatchewan was established as a province in 1905, with Regina as its capital. The early years of the 20th century were prosperous ones for the new province. Between 1885 and 1911, the population of the region grew from approximately 32,000 to 493,000. Furthermore, the price of wheat—the main crop grown by farmers on the plains—continued to climb during these years. After World War I (1914-1918), however, the people of Saskatchewan suddenly faced a bleak future. Wheat prices fell

The Wanuskewin Dance Troupe performs in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. The troupe was established in July 1997 to showcase song and dance of the native people from the Northern Plains region of Canada. EPD Photos/Peter Langer
The Wanuskewin Dance Troupe performs in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. The troupe was established in July 1997 to showcase song and dance of the native people from the Northern Plains region of Canada.
EPD Photos/Peter Langer
50% by 1920. Jobs were scarce and low-paying, and tariffs (taxes) on imported products kept prices for consumer goods high.

Over the course of the 1920s, grain prices recovered, and Canada as a whole experienced a period of rapid industrialization. Improvements to railways and roads boosted commerce. Automobiles, telephones, electrical appliances, and other consumer goods became widely available. As in the United States, consumer confidence led to the rapid expansion of credit and greater business opportunities.

The Great Depression, a period of severe economic downturn that began in 1929, hit Saskatchewan and the other Prairie Provinces very hard. In addition to the falling grain prices of the 1920s, droughts and frequent crop failures devastated the economy of the province. Feeling that the federal government's grain policies did not meet their needs, Saskatchewan farmers began to look for a way to gain more control over the grain industry. As a result, they created a cooperative organization called the Saskatchewan Wheat Pool. The Pool allowed wheat to be sold directly to foreign importers; all profits were then divided among the Pool's members. By 1924, about 45,000 farmers were under contract to the Pool. As economic conditions in Saskatchewan worsened in the 1930s, social welfare programs in the area expanded rapidly. The provincial income in Saskatchewan decreased by 90% during the 1930s, and two-thirds of the province's population needed welfare assistance. These harsh economic conditions frequently resulted in protests and demonstrations by unemployed workers, the most famous being the Regina Riot.

World War II (1939-1945) brought an end to the Depression, and in the 1940s consumer spending and immigration to Canada increased rapidly. Urbanization spread quickly with the passage of the National Housing Act, which made it easier for ordinary people to purchase their own homes. Unemployment insurance and other social welfare programs were also created following the war. In 1945, the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation (CCF), led by Tommy Douglas, became the first socialist government elected in North America. (Socialism is a political and economic system in which the means of production are owned and controlled by the government.) In 1949, the CCF was also responsible for the creation of the Saskatchewan Arts Board, the first publicly funded council of the arts in North America. Later, under the leadership of Prime Minister Louis St. Laurent, old age pensions were increased (1951) and a national hospital insurance plan was introduced (1957).

The recovery of the 1940s and 1950s saw the economy of Saskatchewan—once dependent solely on agriculture—branch out into the development of oil, uranium, potash, coal, and other minerals. All of Saskatchewan's industries demanded a plentiful water supply, but water availability in the southern part of the province was rather unpredictable. To address this problem, Lake Diefenbaker on the South Saskatchewan River was created in 1958 to act as a reservoir.

The prosperity enjoyed by Saskatchewan farmers at this time was threatened in 1970, when grain sales fell drastically. Farmers faced hardships that reminded many of the difficult Depression years. Fortunately, recovery from this downturn began almost immediately, with an increase in sales and a rise in wheat and barley prices in 1971. The 1970s and 1980s brought other progress, particularly in the areas of culture and sports. The Saskatchewan Centre of the Arts opened in Regina in 1970, and the University of Regina was established there in 1974. In 1989, the city of Saskatoon hosted the Jeux Canada Games, and the Saskatchewan Roughriders won the Grey Cup for the second time. (They had also been victorious in 1966.) The late 1980s saw the emergence of Saskatoon as a major trading centre of western Canada. Its population in these years rose to surpass that of Regina.

On 17 December 1992 Canada joined the United States and Mexico in signing the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), which was built upon the U.S.-Canada Free Trade Agreement. NAFTA, which was implemented in 1994, seeks to create a single market of 370 million people.

The Québec Question

Canada's unity has been threatened by the possibility of Québec's secession, or separation, from the rest of the country. Québec is a French-speaking area that places high value on the preservation of its French culture. The Meech Lake Accord (1987) and the Charlottetown Accord (1992) both proposed the recognition of Québec as a "distinct society" within the nation. The Canadian government had hoped that these accords would alleviate Québec's fears of cultural loss and discrimination while maintaining a unified Canada, but Québec's separation issue remains unresolved.

Early 21st Century

In the early 2000s, Saskatchewan was taking steps to improve its educational system. It was also looking to improve health care, create jobs, and grow the economy. Also, steps were taken to promote a "green" Saskatchewan: breakthroughs in renewable energy sources, environmental technology, and energy conservation were geared to support an economy growing in harmony with the natural environment.

12 PROVINCIAL GOVERNMENT

The structure of the provincial government reflects that of the federal government. For example, the provincial premier, as the majority party leader of the legislature, functions much like the Canadian prime minister. Provincial legislators, like their federal counterparts in Parliament, are elected to represent a constitutional jurisdiction and pass legislation. They do so as members of the 58-seat Legislative Assembly. A provincial lieutenant-governor approves laws passed by the legislature, much like the Governor General at the federal level. There is no provincial equivalent, however, to the federal Senate.

13 POLITICAL PARTIES

After Saskatchewan entered the confederation in 1905, political parties catered to the interests of farmers. The Liberal Party gained the majority of seats, eventually holding 91 percent of them in 1934. Soon, the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation (CCF) became more important, and often held the majority from 1944 to 1971.

The most recent general election was held on 5 November 2003. The parties held the following number of seats in Saskatchewan's Legislative Assembly in 2003 (following the election): New Democratic Party, 30; Saskatchewan Party, 28; Liberal Party, 0.

PREMIERS OF SASKATCHEWAN
PREMIERS OF SASKATCHEWAN

Term Premier Party
1905–16 Thomas Walter Scott Liberal
1916–22 William Melville Martin Liberal
1922–26 Charles Avery Dunning Liberal
1926–29 James Garfield Gardiner Liberal
1929–34 James Milton Anderson Conservative
1934–35 James Garfield Gardiner Liberal
1935–44 William John Patterson Liberal
1944–61 Thomas Clement Douglas CCF
1961–64 Woodrow Stanley Lloyd CCF
1964–71 William Ross Thatcher Liberal
1971–82 Allan Emrys Blakeney New Democratic
1982–91 Donald Grant Devine Conservative
1991–01 Roy John Romanow New Democratic
2001– Lorne Calvert New Democratic

14 LOCAL GOVERNMENT

Saskatchewan's municipalities are classified as the following: rural municipalities, villages, resort villages, towns, and cities, as well as northern towns, northern villages, northern hamlets, and northern settlements. Villages must have at least 100 permanent residents and a tax base of C$200,000, while resort villages do not need permanent residents. Towns must have at least 500 permanent inhabitants. Cities are required to have a minimum population of 5,000. Saskatchewan has 9 cities, 33 municipalities, 4 rural municipalities, and 3 villages.

15 JUDICIAL SYSTEM

The Canadian Constitution grants provincial jurisdiction over the administration of justice, and allows each province to organize its own court system and police forces. The federal government has exclusive domain over cases involving trade and commerce, banking, bankruptcy, and criminal law. The Federal Court of Canada has both trial and appellate divisions for federal cases. The nine-judge Supreme Court of Canada is an appellate court that determines the constitutionality of both federal and provincial statutes. The Tax Court of Canada hears appeals of taxpayers against assessments by Revenue Canada.

The provincial court system consists of the Provincial Court, which hears criminal and civil cases, small claims, family and youth proceedings, and traffic violations; the Court of Queen's Bench, which hears serious civil and criminal cases, and some family law matters, including divorce; and the Court of Appeal, Saskatchewan's highest court, which hears certain appeals from the Provincial Court and the Court of Queen's Bench.

In 2002, there were 27 homicides in Saskatchewan. That year, there were 1,812 violent crimes per 100,000 persons, and 5,678 property crimes per 100,000 persons.

16 MIGRATION

The Métis, people of mixed European and Aboriginal descent, were among the first settlers, many of them having migrated from Manitoba.

A major wave of immigration began in 1899 and continued until 1929. By the early 1920s, over 20 percent of all Canadians lived in the Prairie provinces (Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and Alberta), up from just 8 percent in 1911.

In 2001, 17.7 percent of the 47,825 immigrants living in Saskatchewan had come from the United Kingdom, and 12.3 percent came from the United States. About 13.8 percent came from Northern and Western European countries other than the United Kingdom (mostly from Germany). Some 13.6 percent came from Eastern Europe (mostly from Poland). About 9.6 percent came from Southeast Asia (mostly from the Philippines), and 8.7 percent from East Asia (mostly from China).

In 2001, 1 percent of Saskatchewan's residents age 5 and older were living abroad. Some 11.5 percent were living elsewhere in Saskatchewan, while 4.7 percent were living in another province. Alberta is the leading province of origin for incoming internal migration and the leading province of destination for outward internal migration.

17 ECONOMY

During the early 20th century, with land available at token prices, agriculture gradually replaced the fur trade. Today, other prominent industries include mining, meat processing, electricity production, and petroleum refining. In 2002, the gross domestic product (GDP) totaled C$34.6 billion, or about 3 percent of the national total.

18 INCOME

In 2000, average weekly wages amounted to C$559.29. Average family income in the province was C$58,077 in 2000 for a family of five.

19 INDUSTRY

In 2002, the total value of shipments by manufacturers was C$7.24 billion. By value of shipments, the leading areas of manufacturing in Saskatchewan included food, C$1.8 billion; machinery, C$662 million; chemicals and chemical products, C$562 million; forestry products, C$430 million; fabricated metals, C$416 million; and electrical equipment, C$208 million.

20 LABOR

In 2003, the labor force amounted to 510,300. The total number of employed persons was 483,900, and the number of unemployed persons was 26,400, for an unemployment rate of 5.2 percent. The hourly minimum wage as of January 2004 was C$6.65.

The sectors with the largest numbers of employed persons in 2003 were trade, 79,700; health care and social services, 58,400; agriculture, 47,300; educational services, 40,200; accommodation and food services, 34,400; manufacturing, 29,600; public administration, 27,600; finance, insurance, and real estate and leasing, 26,800; construction, 22,600; transportation and warehousing, 22,200; other services, 22,100; information, culture, and recreation, 21,800; forestry, fishing, mining, and oil and gas, 19,100; professional, scientific, and technical services, 18,200; management, administrative, and other support, 11,300; and utilities, 4,500.

21 AGRICULTURE

About one-third of Saskatchewan's area consists of cultivated lands. In 1905, when Saskatchewan entered the Canadian confederation, agriculture was the only industry, and it centered on wheat farming. In 1907, the development of the Marquis strain of wheat (a fast-growing type that thrives in the short but intense growing season of the northern prairie) expanded farming and settlement in northern Saskatchewan. Today, Saskatchewan supplies over 25 percent of Canada's grain production, and crops include canola, rye, oats, barley, and flaxseeds, as well as wheat.

Saskatoons (a berry) and strawberries are the top fruit crops produced. The top field-grown vegetable crops are sweet corn, cabbage, and green peas. In 2001, 773 farms were growing certified organic products. There were 298 farms with

The town of Swift Current is the base for oil exploration in western Saskatchewan and is a regional trade center for livestock and grain. Canadian Tourism Commission photo.
The town of Swift Current is the base for oil exploration in western Saskatchewan and is a regional trade center for livestock and grain.
Canadian Tourism Commission photo.
greenhouses under glass, plastic, or other protection. There were 9 sod farms, 44 farms growing Christmas trees, and 94 farms growing nursery products in 2001.

There were 50,598 farms operating in Saskatchewan in 2001. The total farm area that year was 64.9 million acres (26.3 million hectares), and 37.9 million acres (15.4 million hectares) were used for crops.

Farm receipts in 2000 (excluding forest products sold) amounted to over C$5.89 billion. Farmers' operating expenses equaled C$5.02 billion. The average farmer was left with C$17,263 before interest payments and taxes.

22 DOMESTICATED ANIMALS

Saskatchewan is a major Canadian producer of cattle and hogs. As of 2001, the livestock population included 2.9 million head of cattle, 30,136 dairy cows, 1.1 million hogs, and 149,389 sheep. The poultry population in 2003 was over 1 million. There were 73 chicken producers, 24 turkey producers, and 67 egg producers. The total value of livestock receipts in 2003 was C$1.65 billion.

23 FISHING

Although commercial fishing is not a large contributor to the provincial economy, sport fishing on Saskatchewan's 94,000 lakes is very popular. Sport fishing is important to many local economies, especially in the northern parts of Saskatchewan. In 2000, the province had 130,076 residents actively engaged in sport fishing within Saskatchewan. Popular game fish for sport anglers include walleye, perch, trout, Arctic grayling, goldeye, burbot, whitefish, and sturgeon.

24 FORESTRY

About half of Saskatchewan is covered with forest. About 97 percent of the 71.2 million acres (28.8 million hectares) of forest land is provincial Crown land. Northern forests are Saskatchewan's most important renewable natural resource, with softwoods the focal point of forestry development. White birch, found primarily in the northern three-fourths of the province and long used by the Plains Indians to make birch bark canoes, is today used for lumber, plywood, veneer, and fuel. In 2000, the total timber harvest was 52,311 acres (21,169 hectares). The value of forestry product exports in 2002 was C$631.9 million, of which wood pulp made up 45 percent. The forestry industry directly employed 4,800 persons in 2002.

25 MINING

Saskatchewan has nearly two-thirds of the world's recoverable potash reserves. Canada is the world's largest producer of potash, and Saskatchewan produces about 85 percent of the national output. Potash, which is used in fertilizers, is mined near Saskatoon, Regina, Esterhazy, and Rocanville. In 2003, the total value of mineral production was C$2.37 billion. Saskatchewan's uranium production was 10,294 tons in 2003, when it was valued at C$504.4 million. Other leading minerals for the province's mining industry include copper, sand and gravel, salt, and gold.

26 ENERGY AND POWER

Saskatchewan is Canada's second-highest oil-producing and third-highest natural gas-producing province. The province has Canada's largest reserves of heavy oil, in addition to light and medium crude deposits. Saskatchewan's 14,000 oil wells produce about 20 percent of Canada's annual oil output. Of Saskatchewan's total exported crude oil, some 65 percent goes to the United States. Crude oil from both Saskatchewan and Alberta is transported to market via the Interprovincial Pipe Line (IPL). The IPL originates in Edmonton and passes through Saskatchewan on its way to eastern Canada and the United States. In 2002, 1.4 million was invested in oil and gas exploration and development. The energy sector provides around 22,000 direct and indirect jobs in the province.

SaskPower is Saskatchewan's major electricity supplier. As of 2003, 78 percent of Saskatchewan's energy needs were met by thermal sources, 21 percent by hydroelectricity, and 1 percent by other sources. The province is a net importer of electricity.

27 COMMERCE

In 2002, total merchandise exports amounted to C$11.3 billion and imports totaled C$4.1 billion. The United States was Saskatchewan's largest export market (62.1 percent of all exports) and the major import supplier (90 percent of all imports). Other major export markets are Japan, China, Algeria, and Mexico. Import suppliers include Mexico, the United Kingdom, Germany, and China.

28 PUBLIC FINANCE

The fiscal year runs from 1 April to 31 March. For fiscal year 2002/03, total revenues were C$6.46 billion. Government expenditures were C$5.76 billion. The largest expenditure areas were health, education, interest on debt, social services, agriculture, and highways and transportation. In the 2002/03 fiscal year, provincial debt was estimated at C$11.45 billion. The government debt to gross domestic product ratio was 22.8 percent.

29 TAXATION

As of 2003, the basic personal income tax rate was 45 percent. The retail sales tax was 6 percent. Major consumption taxes are levied on gasoline (C$0.15 per liter) and tobacco (C$32 per carton).

The average family of four (two parents and two children) in 2003 earned C$76,544. Such a family paid C$36,772 in taxes.

Corporate income tax rates in 2003 were as follows: small business rate, 6 percent; general business rate, 17 percent; and capital tax rate, 0.6–3.25 percent.

30 HEALTH

In 2001, there were 12,275 live births in Saskatchewan, a 1.1 percent increase over 2000. Saskatchewan was one of only four provinces or territories that had an increase in the number of live births in 2001. There were 8,740 deaths that year, a 2.4 percent decrease from 2000. Life expectancy for men in 2001 was 76.4 years, and 82.3 years for women. Reported cases of selected diseases in 2002 included gonococcal infections, 560; giardiasis, 168; salmonellosis, 161; hepatitis B, 43; and campylobacteriosis, 254. Between November 1985 and June 2003, 407 residents had become infected with HIV, the virus that causes AIDS.

Saskatchewan has over 130 hospitals and health centers. The Regina General Hospital is the largest health care facility in southern Saskatchewan.

31 HOUSING

Saskatchewan had 379,680 households in 2001. The average household size was 2.5 persons. There were 288,075 households living in single-detached houses, 10,715 households living in apartments in buildings with five or more stories, 6,900 households living in mobile homes, and 73,990 households living in other dwellings, including row houses and apartments in buildings with fewer than five stories. In 2002, C$958.5 million was invested in residential housing construction.

32 EDUCATION

In 2000, Saskatchewan had 208,483 students enrolled in elementary and secondary schools. That year, there were 11,473 teachers, for a student-teacher ratio of 16 to 1.

There are two major universities in the province: the University of Saskatchewan in Saskatoon, with an enrollment of 15,368 full-time students in October 2002; and the University of Regina, with about 12,000 full-and part-time students. The First Nations University of Canada (formerly the Saskatchewan Indian Federated College) is affiliated with the University of Regina. It is the first university-level institution in North America operated by and for Native North Americans. Enrollment at First Nations University of Canada has grown from 9 students in 1976 to about 1,200 in 2003–04.

33 ARTS

The Regina Symphony Orchestra is Canada's oldest symphony orchestra. Regina's Globe Theatre company is the city's oldest theater and performs in the old city hall downtown. Saskatoon also has a symphony orchestra and several theaters. Filmpool in Regina is an artist-run center for the promotion of independent film-making. There are also writers and artists' colonies, a storytelling festival, and many art galleries in the province. Per capita provincial spending on the arts in Saskatchewan in 2000/01 was C$71.

34 LIBRARIES AND MUSEUMS

The largest public libraries are Regina Public Library, with nine branches, and the Saskatoon Public Library, with seven branches. Seven regional systems—Chinook, Lakeland, Palliser, Parkland, Southeast, Wapiti, and Wheatland—provide public library services to other parts of the province. Regina has the Plains Historical Museum, the Royal Canadian Mounted Police Centennial Museum, the

Saskatchewan Museum of Natural History, and the Saskatchewan Science Centre. Saskatoon is the home of the Western Development Museum and the Ukrainian Museum of Canada. The Right Honourable Diefenbacker Canada Centre in Saskatoon maintains the collection of papers, letters, and memorabilia of the late prime minister John G. Diefenbacker.

35 COMMUNICATIONS

As of 2002, Saskatchewan had 28 AM and FM radio stations, and 50 television stations. The Regina metropolitan area has 7 local AM and 9 FM radio stations (including CBC French) and 4 broadcast television stations; Cable Regina offers Canadian and American cable stations.

36 PRESS

Daily newspapers include The Leader-Post (Regina), The Star Phoenix (Saskatoon), the Times-Herald (Moose Jaw), and the Daily Herald (Prince Albert).

37 TOURISM, TRAVEL, AND RECREATION

Named after Queen Victoria (Victoria Regina), the capital is the site of Wascana Centre, one of the world's largest urban parks. Regina also has Buffalo Days, a week-long provincial exposition and summer fair. Festivals in Saskatoon include Folkfest (an ethnic heritage event), Winter Festival, and the Northern Saskatchewan International Children's Festival. Authentic powwows at Indian reservations, although not tourist events as such, are a cultural highlight of Saskatchewan in the summer.

Hockey great Gordie Howe was born in Floral, Saskatchewan. He received his first hockey stick at nine, and began his career at the King George School in Saskatoon as a goalie. Cliff Boutelle.
Hockey great Gordie Howe was born in Floral, Saskatchewan. He received his first hockey stick at nine, and began his career at the King George School in Saskatoon as a goalie.
Cliff Boutelle.

Saskatchewan is home to two national parks and 26 provincial parks. There are more than 250 golf courses in Saskatchewan. Tourism is a C$1 billion-a-year industry in Saskatchewan, and more than 50,000 people are employed in tourism-related jobs.

38 SPORTS

Professional sports teams in Saskatchewan include the Saskatoon Blades and the Regina Pats of the Western Major Hockey League. Saskatoon also was home of the Saskatchewan Storm of the World Basketball League until the league disbanded in 1992. Regina hosts the Saskatchewan Roughriders of the Canadian Football League (CFL). The Roughriders are the oldest professional football team in North America and were the CFL champions in 1966 and 1989. The University of Saskatchewan Huskie football team won the national championship in 1990. Popular recreational sports include baseball, football, soccer, and curling (a game imported from Scotland in which large rounded stones with attached handles are slid down an ice-covered playing area toward a circular target).

39 FAMOUS SASKATCHEWANERS

Almighty Voice (1874–97) was a famous hero/outlaw and martyr who led a Cree Indian band resisting European settlement on the Saskatchewan prairie. T. C. "Tommy" Douglas (1904–86) was a famous political figure who led the Cooperative Commonwealth Federation (CCF) to victory in the 1940s, thus establishing the first socialist government in North America. Gerhard Herzberg (1904–99), recipient of the 1971 Nobel Prize in chemistry, was a professor at the University of Saskatchewan from 1935 to 1945.

Noted Saskatchewaners in entertainment include emcee and producer Art Linkletter (b.1912) and actor Leslie Nielsen (b.1926), and singer and song-writer Buffy Sainte-Marie (b.1941). Folk singer and songwriter Joni Mitchell (b.1943) grew up in Saskatoon. Distinguished Saskatchewan authors include novelists W. O. Mitchell (1914–98), Rudy Wiebe (b.1934), L. R. Wright (1939–2001), and short story writer Guy Vanderhaeghe (b.1951).

Hockey legends from Saskatchewan include Eddie Shore (1902–85), Emile Francis (b.1926), Gordon "Gordie" Howe (b.1928), Glenn "Chico" Resch (b.1948), and Bryan Trottier (b.1956). Sandra Schmirler (1963–2000) led the curling team that won the first-ever Olympic gold medal in women's curling at the 1998 Olympics in Nagano, Japan.

40 BIBLIOGRAPHY

Caswell, Maryanne. Pioneer Girl: Maryanne Caswell. Plattsburgh, NY: Tundra Books, 2001.

LeVert, Suzanne. Saskatchewan. Philadelphia: Chelsea House, 2001.

Margoshes, Dave. Discover Canada: Saskatchewan. Toronto: Grolier, 1992.

Mayell, Mark. Saskatchewan. San Diego: Lucent Books/Thomas Gale, 2003.

Richardson, Gillian. Saskatchewan. Minneapolis: Lerner Publications, 1995.

Web sites

Canada Tourism Commission. Canada. http://www.canadatourism.com/ctx/app (accessed on March 20, 2004).

Government of Saskatchewan. http://www.gov.sk.ca (accessed on March 20, 2004).

Saskatchewan Agriculture, Food, and Rural Revitalization. http://www.agr.gov.sk.ca (accessed on March 20, 2004).

Saskatchewan Tourism. http://www.sasktourism.com (accessed on March 20, 2004).

Statistics Canada. http://www.statcan.ca/english (accessed on March 20, 2004).

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